Influence of the I. Czechoslovak Agrarian reform on the national structure of south Slovakia
Vplyv prvej československej pozemkovej reformy na národnostné zloženie obcí južného Slovenska
Colonies were result of inner colonization. Inner colonization in Czechoslovakia was one of actions of the I. Czechoslovak agrarian reform in 1918 – 1938. The main reason of realization the agrarian reform was unequal distribution of land holdings. The major part of the earth belonged to small group of agriculturalists – land lords. Landlords who owned more than 54 ha of earth represents only 0,9 % of all agriculturalist. On the other side were big group of small of agriculturalist (69,4 % ) who kept less than 5,4 ha of land. Unequal land holding was source of social pressure. Czechoslovaks politicians during 1918 – 1920 adopted several laws that changed ownership of land. Character of agrarian reform was hint at law no. 215/1919 about overrun of big land possession. State overruns land from landlords who owned land surpassing 150 ha of farm land or 250 ha of land in general. Overrun land was allotted to lacklands and small farmer. Overrun land in south Slovakia was set apart as area for inner colonization – colonization area. Inner colonization pursed two aims – political and social-economic. Political aim runs to change strong concentration of Hungarian minority in the south Slovakia. Social aim tended to allocate people on colonization area from regions with misery of agricultural land. Nationality of coming colonists was mostly Slovak or Czech. Until 1938, colonies Bottovo, Hviezdoslavov, Jesenské, Miloslavov, Mudroňovo, Slávikovo and Šrobárová were transformed to independent villages. Today we can allege that social purpose of inner colonization was fulfilled. Although many initial difficulties colonists were able to live in area of former colonies and villages Czechoslovakia Mudroňovo, Slávikovo and Šrobárová did not loose their independence and did not perish. In all of villages is dominant Slovakian ethnic.
HREHOR, Henrich. Influence of the I. Czechoslovak Agrarian reform on the national structure of south Slovakia. Individual and Society, 2008, Vol. 11, Nr. 4.
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